Spleen tumors in dogs are also called hemangiosarcoma. It is common in dogs with a higher case finding rate in Golden retrievers. The rates among golden retrievers are unfortunately quite high, compared to other breeds. It is estimated 56% of female dogs and 66% of male dogs will die from some forms of this malignant cancer. Hemangiosarcoma is an aggressive, fast-growing form of cancer seen in dogs as a whole, and golden retriever breed in particular. It arises from the veins, and it can be diagnosed microscopically at an early stage.
Since the tumor is supported by its origin, namely the vascular endothelial cells, it can metastasize rapidly through the bloodstream, making it easier for tumors to grow even after surgery. The tumor cells easily metastasize to the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, peritoneum, omentum, lymph nodes, mesentery, skeletal muscle, and bone.
There are no clinical dog spleen tumor symptoms unless the tumor has grown. The first symptom when the tumor begins to rupture and bleed is hypovolemia. This is a condition where the amount of blood and fluids in the dog’s body decreases drastically, causing the body to become weak and even faint. This cancer is said to occur because the dogs are exposed to the sun for too long.
These spleen tumors in dogs can cause anemia and thrombocytopenia. Clinical symptoms that occur include loss of appetite, cardiac arrhythmias, weight loss, drowsiness, pale mucosa, fever, increased heart rate, and sudden death. Another visible symptom is a tear in the blood vessel wall, which causes the blood vessel to collapse, causing bleeding in various areas like the chest cavity and abdominal cavity. The symptoms depend on the location of tumor.
The appearance of hemangiosarcoma appears as the bleeding with black-red blood color. Meanwhile, splenic hemangiosarcoma is in form of nodular hyperplasia or splenic hematoma, and the tumor is like black-red circle, in form of tumor bleeding after incision. In subcutaneous tissue, the tumor mass infiltrates the tissue, has no borders or stroma, and varies in diameter from 110 cm. In the heart organ, it is attached to the surface of endocardium, precisely in the right atrium, 25 cm in diameter. It looks like grayish red or yellow red lump. On biopsy, hemangiosarcoma varies in size, and it is light gray to dark red in color. These spleen tumors in dogs are nodular and can be filled with bleeding or necrosis with gentle contact.